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Journal ID : TMJ-12-10-2023-11575
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Title : Salt Consumption Level and the Nexus with Salt-related Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour Among Hypertensive Patients in Nigeria

Abstract :

Excessive salt consumption is the single most impactful modifiable risk factor of hypertension yet; majority of world’s population consume more than it is recommended. Population-specific salt consumption data is essential for public health action and the development of salt reduction interventions. The study assessed salt consumption level and its relationship with salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviour among hypertensive patients using 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as consumption index. A clinic-based case survey conducted between November, 2022 and January, 2023 among 86 randomly selected hypertensive patients in two healthcare facilities in Yenagoa, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Validated questionnaires were used to obtain data on participants’ demographic characteristics and salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviour. Participants’ 24-hour urine samples were collected with wide-neck 3-litre containers and urinary sodium measured with a standard potentiometric analyzer. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 24; hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance. Results showed that majority (75 [87.2%]) of the participants consumed above 5g of salt per day. The sample average daily salt intake was 6.4g, and there was no significant relationship between participants’ dietary salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviour, and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Participants’ 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was independent of gender, age, residential area, and educational status (P > 0.05). Salt consmption level of hypertensive individuals in Bayelsa state, Nigeria, is above measures recommended for healthy living. Development and implementation of salt reduction interventions in line with World Health Organization framework of consumer awareness, product reformulation and environmental change may help reduce intake.

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