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27 Jun 2024 (Vol 47 , Iss 06 )

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30 Jun 2024 (Vol 47 , Iss 06 )

Journal ID : TMJ-08-01-2022-10977
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Title : Salivary Biomarker Potential for Early Detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Surface Acoustic Wave Technology: A Narrative Review

Abstract :

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent oral cancer that occurs with a prevalence of about 90%. OSCC ranked as the sixth most common oral cancer in the world with morbidity and mortality rates of more than 50%. Southeast Asia has the highest prevalence compared to other countries, which is 6.4/100.000, 20-40% of new OSCC cases are detected after experiencing metastasis to the lymph nodes that cause further complications. Therefore, OSCC early detection is needed for better patient management. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) is the latest technology that can detect OSCC using salivary biomarkers. Analysis of the potential of saliva-containing biomarkers for early detection of OSCC using Surface Acoustic Wave technology. Salivary biomarkers such as IL-1β, IL-8, and Galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP) increased significantly even in the early stages of OSCC. SAW technology provides accurate label-free detection of various analytes, from molecular to cellular levels through the inverse piezoelectric effect of interactions between specific biomarkers as good as gold standards ELISA. SAW electromechanical between the piezoelectric crystal and the single input electric crystal that combines sends a surface wave to the SAW substrate then binds to OSCC biomarkers and changes SAW frequency. SAW velocity is sensitive to changes in mass loading, causing shifts in latitude and design phases that allow high sensitivity detection. The concentration of IL-1β, IL-8, and LGALS3BP can be defined by this frequency shift measurement, then OSCC can be detected earlier. Salivary biomarkers potentially utilized for early detection of OSCC disease using Surface Acoustic Wave technology.

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