05 Oct 2022
30 Sep 2022
Malnutrition has long known as an unfavorable outcome in congenital heart disease patients. Malnutrition may be differentiated into underweight, stunting, and wasting depending on anthropometric measurement. The difference of malnutrition prevalence and its subtypes in acyanotic and cyanotic congenital heart disease is currently unknown. This systematic review aims to elucidate the incidence of malnutrition, stunting, wasting, and underweight in cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) children. This systematic review is written in accordance with PRISMA guideline. Studies were searched on five different databases, and only cohort or case control studies are selected. The search was done using combinations of keywords and MeSH terms whenever eligible. Statistics was calculated by fixed-effect model with the Mantel-Haenszel method when there was no significant heterogeneity or with DerSimonian- Laird weights for the random-effects model when there was a significant heterogeneity. Two case control studies are included for review. No difference of general malnutrition and wasting prevalence between acyanotic and cyanotic CHD group. Stunting is substantially more prevalent in cyanotic CHD group (p=0,05). Underweight is more prevalent in acyanotic CHD, however the difference is not significant (p=0,11) Stunting represent a more severe impact in cyanotic CHD.