04 Dec 2023
30 Nov 2023
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) can be defined as one of the Pneumoviridae respiratory viruses that has been initially discovered in the respiratory tracts of children in the Netherlands in the year 2001. In addition, HMPV is a major pathogen in newborn respiratory infections; almost 50% of all children are infected with this virus before the age of two, and the majority are infected before the age of five. In immunosuppressed people, children, and the elderly, HMPV is one of the most common acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) causes. Also, this pathogen is considered as a leading mortality cause in the children who are younger than five years old. The present study does focus on the investigation of cytokines IFN-γ, TGF- β, IL-4 and IL-10 gene expression in the positive pediatric patients for HMPV were recruited from inpatients of Al zahraa hospital, Najaf City, Iraq. Studies conducted in various countries allover the world has verified that the human metapneumovirus (HPMV) is the most etiological agent of respiratory infections among children. In this context, this study encompassed 44 children infected with human metapneumovirus. The recruited patients were those routinely do visit the external clinics of Al zahraa hospital, Najaf City from September 2020 to April 2021. The presumptive diagnosis by the pediatrician was viral respiratory infection. Data of participants including clinical symptoms, age and family history were collected by using a questionnaire format specially designed for this purpose. Fourty four blood samples were positive with human metapneumovirus of different ages were enrolled, Real-time PCR assay was used for molecular detection of cytokines IFN-γ, TGF- β, IL-4 and IL-10 gene expression and PCR primers set for this cytokines were used. Statistical analysis for all data was done using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS), version 27, (Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) computer software. Statistical comparison between study groups analyzed using chi-square test and T test. P<0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Regarding the antiviral immune response in terms of IL-10, IL-4, TGF beta, and INF-y were monitored in cases of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in this study. The gene expression of TGF beta, IL-4, and INF-y were significantly higher among the positive pediatric patients when compared to those among the health control group, while the gene expression of IL-10 were degress observed among positive cases infected with human metapneumovirus (HMPV). IL-10 occurred in median concentration of 0.0083 in patient group and 1 in control group. It was significantly and higher different in two groups when compared with each other (P<0.05). IL-4 occurred in median concentration of 2.78 in patient group and 1 in control group. It was significantly and higher different in two groups when compared with each other (P<0.05). IFN-γ occurred in median concentration of 2.38 in patient group and 1 in control group. It was significantly and higher different in two groups when compared with each other (P<0.05). TGF- β occurred in median concentration of 4.481 in patient group and 1 in control group. It was significantly and higher different in two groups when compared with each other (P<0.05).