04 Dec 2023
30 Nov 2023
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) ranked fifth among all cancers and the third most common malignancy in Malaysia's male population. Even though it is rare, it is more predominant among indigenous groups, especially in Dusun and Kadazan ethnicity in East Malaysia. One hundred six cases of NPC were recorded in 2013 compared to 75 patients a year before. The youngest is 11 years old, and the most senior is 84. The upward trend of NPC cases in the younger age group is worrisome. Thus, there is an urgent to determine risk factors related to this NPC. The research aims to determine the association between diet, lifestyle, and occupational exposure with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in East Malaysia. A 1:2 ratio of unmatched case-control research on NPC was carried out in 70 cases and 140 controls and undertaken at the Otorhinolaryngology clinic in Hospital Queen Elizabeth (HQE) Sabah from March until July 2019. Multiple logistic regression analysis shows that respondents with dietary intake of three times or more salted fish and smoked fish had an association with NPC AOR of 3.95(95% CI 1.83–8.55) and AOR of 3.08 (95% CI 1.56–6.08). Those who smoked and had workplace exposure to chemicals showed a significantly increased risk of getting NPC AOR of 2.88 (95% CI 1.34–6.21) and AOR of 8.09 (95% CI 1.89–34.62). Promoting a healthier diet, lifestyle modification, and proper chemical handling could reduce the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.