05 Oct 2022
30 Sep 2022
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive that can provide imaging of the cross-sectional structures of the retina by using low-coherence interferometry. The study was to assess of the macular area and detection of macular ischemia in diabetic maculopathy and correlate the finding observed using OCT-Angiography and Fluorescein angiography. The study included forty eyes of twenty patients with clinically significant diabetic macular edema as defined by Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) without any other ocular diseases. In our study, the macula showed macular edema without signs of ischemia in 31 eyes out of 40 (77.5%) and 9 eyes out of 40 (22.5%) with macular ischemia (ischemic maculopathy). while by OCT-A we found that the macula was ischemic (Rarified FAZ) in 15 eyes out of 40 (37.5 %) in both superficial and deep capillary plexuses and this was statistically significant as P-value was less than 0.001. There was statistically significant (p-value less than 0.001) increase in FAZ diameter measured by OCT-A in relation to macular ischemia detected on FFA. There was statistically significant (p value = 0.004) decrease in para-foveal density percentage measured by OCT-A in relation to macular ischemia detected on FFA. DME is a major complication causing significant visual morbidity in diabetic patients affecting the quality of life. FFA and OCT-A are indispensable tools in the proper diagnosis and treatment of diabetic macular edema.