04 Dec 2023
30 Nov 2023
Hospitalized older people COVID-19 patients are usually the ones suffering its negative outcomes. This makes prevention of risk factors of negative outcomes in such population a priority. Malnutrition is common in older people and can negatively affect their outcome. Since assessment of nutrition in the Hospitalized COVID-19 patients can be challenging, replacing conventional nutritional screen by routine laboratory investigations that can show metabolic and nutritional state can be useful. Hence; our study focused on finding the relation between nutritional and metabolic biomarkers can be used as alternative indicators could correlate with the clinical outcomes of hospitalized older patients with COVID-19 infection. A cross-sectional study in a major tertiary hospital in Cairo including all older people age 50 or more who fit inclusion and exclusion criteria admitted to the hospital during the second wave of COVID-19 infection (confirmed by PCR). On admission, anorexia and lab findings were recorded for serum creatinine, Blood urea nitrogen, Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, ferritin, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein. Our findings show that most studied markers were highly significantly associated with patients that suffered negative outcomes such as prolonged length of hospital stay, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality but they were not significantly associated with thromboembolic events. Anorexia was not associated with any of the studied negative outcomes. Studied biomarkers might be useful in improving the prediction and prevention of negative outcomes in hospitalized older people suffering from COVID-19.
This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of zinc, copper and chromium toxicity after exposure for two different durations (4 weeks and 8 weeks). Ninety six adult male albino rats were divided into 8 groups 12 rats each. G1 (C1): served as healthy control; G2 (Zn1), G3 (Cu1) and G4 (Cr1) were received 500, 200 or 8 mg/day of zinc, copper and chromium, respectively for 4 weeks. While G5 (C2) served as healthy control; G6 (Zn2), G7 (Cu2) and G8 (Cr2) were received the same doses of metals for 8 weeks. The results of this study revealed that exposure to the three metals have detrimental effects in a time dependent manner. A significant reduction (P≤0.05) in liver and kidney functions; also hemotoxic effect was confirmed by reduction in Hb concentration and deteriorations in blood cells count and shapes; in addition, results showed a significant increase in serum MDA, NO and OSI and a significant reduction (P≤0.05) in TAC and GSH levels and SOD activity; marked elevations in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CRP, MPO and EMAP-II. Moreover, tested metals caused disturbances in immune system, negative effect on brain neurotransmitters, sever elevation in DNA fragmentation percentage and PCG level in spleen and brain tissues and serum LDH activity, cytosolic and mitochondrial dysfunction in spleen and brain tissues appeared as significant elevation in IDH activity and CCO. The microscopic examination for spleen and brain confirmed damage to these tissues.
Pain is a condition that is felt by a person subjectively, in which everyone has a different level of pain. Several studies show that there are still many complaints of pain felt by some people, which are caused by needles. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of EMLA and ethyl chloride spray to reduce pain caused by needles. This study is a literature review using data from various sources such as books, websites, journals and others. The result shows that neither EMLA nor ethyl chloride spray had a significant difference in reducing pain intensity. Ethyl chloride spray has rapid onset of action and short duration of action. Ethyl chloride spray also rarely causes allergic reactions and has very little systemic effect. Meanwhile, EMLA has a slow onset but it has long duration and also a deeper anesthetic effect than ethyl chloride spray. The conclusion of this study is that EMLA and ethyl chloride spray both have the same effectiveness to reduce local pain on the skin, but ethyl chloride spray has a fast onset of action so it is more suitable for procedures that require a shorter preparation time compared to EMLA which has a slower onset of action.
The concerns of Covid-19 vaccine safety and the side effects are till now unknown. We report a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) induced with Astrazeneca Covid-19 vaccine. In fact, the patient with no history of medical allergies presented with prominent nodular skin lesions over the face, the trunk, the arms and limbs, associated with symmetric arthritis of both wrists, hands and knees. Antinuclear antibodies were positive (1:320) and skin biopsy revealed basal layer degeneration, interface dermatitis with a mononuclear cell infiltrate at the dermal-epidermal junction and perivascular lymphocitic infiltrate. Of note, the patient received the first dose of Covid-19 vaccine (Astrazeneca) 5 days before the onset of cutaneous findings. She was then, diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and treated with corticosteroids and Hydroxychloroquine and cutaneous lesions and arthralgias disappeared.
The use of aromatic and medicinal plants is of great importance not only as a resource of medical care but also to control many pests including varroa, an ectoparasitic mite of honeybee. Based on this observation, we found it useful to conduct biotests to evaluate the Impact of Mentha spicata, M. pulegium, M. suaveolens and Artemisia herba alba essential oils on Apis mellifera. The bioassay results revealed that the tested oils exert a toxic effect on A. mellifera. Depending on concentrations and exposure times, mortalities recorded ranged from 0 to 100%. The LC50 values of tested essential oils, after 96 h of exposure, vary from 0.71 to 2.70 μl / l of air depending on the considered plant species. Moreover, the M. pulegium essential oil has been the most toxic comparing to others.