04 Dec 2023
30 Nov 2023
Saxitoxins (STXs) are a highly marine neurotoxins derived from harmful algal blooms and cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) that pose a significant risk to public and environmental health. The study of STXs toxicity has been carried out but little and is known about the histopathological responses on mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate immunotoxic and histological responses induced by STXs extracted from Acanthocardia tuberculatum. To this end, daily, mice were treated orally during 7 days with sublethal concentrations (10 mg /100 g mouse). Lymphocyte proliferation and brain histopathology were analysed after treatment. The results showed a significative increase of lymphocytes level and a decrease of polynuclears level. The histological study in brain mice showed an increase of the number of the nucleus as well as a hypercondensation of the chromatin brain, Also, we observed the presence of some multinucleated giant cells that indicate the inflammation in brain. We conclude that STXs induce inflammation and cells necrosis in brain mice and causes the importation of the immunizing cells and the development of the inflammatory reactions.
E-cadherin is a protein that plays a role in cell adhesion and regulates the stability of contact interactions at the cell surface. E-cadherin production may decrease in cases of C. albicans infection, which may affect the integrity and stability of vaginal epithelial cells. A total of 48 rattus norvegius wistar rats were divided into 4 positive control groups (P1) were given topical C. albicans after being grown in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) in the vagina of rattus norvegicus wistar white rats. Groups P2 & P3 were treated with Holothurin 3500 ug and caspofugin 140 ug topically on the vagina of the animal model in 12-, 24- and 48-hours intervals. Immunofluorosens was performed to analyze the results quantitatively using imageJ software and qualitatively by listing the imaging. Data were then processed using SPSS version 23 statistical software. Measurement of E-cadherin expression after VVC for 12, 24, and 48 hours showed no significant difference in all groups. The negative control group had lower E-cadherin expression than the treatment groups, and in the C. albicans positive treatment group, E-cadherin expression increased over time. The holothurin-administered group showed suppression of E-cadherin expression at hours 12 and 24, however at hour 48 E-cadherin expression rose slightly although not significantly. Holothurin given to experimental animals with candidiasis has significant changes in suppressing the amount of E-cadherin in the vaginal epithelial tissue of wistar rattus norvegicus.
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign tumor-like bone condition. It affects the predilection of long and craniofacial bones, and the prevalence of spine involvement is very low. Most patients with fibrous dysplasia are asymptomatic. However, fibrous dysplasia may be painful or cause swelling. Invasion of medullar bone with fibrous tissue leads to a fragile structure of bone with a risk of fracture and multiple complications . We report a case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of craniofacial with spinal involvement affecting the thoracic and lumbar spine simultaneously with severe back pain that came to the emergency department. A Male 13 years old presented with severe back pain that started intermittently four weeks before he came to an orthopedic surgeon. His symptoms were both diurnal and nocturnal, worsening with fatigue and everyday activity. His parent's patient started showing enlargement of the maxilla and mandible at seven years old, and he started to show a kyphotic spine deformity at 8. On physical examination, tenderness of the thoracal and lumbar spine was noted. In the thoracolumbar MRI, there were multiple lesions on the thoracal and lumbal vertebra. The patient was treated with posterior laminectomy and long posterior stabilization and fusion. Satisfactory results were achieved, and there were no complications. The extreme rarity of the disease and its presentation imposes rigorous investigations to rule out malignancies. Surgical treatment was indicated for severe back pain with posterior stabilization and decompression. The surgical treatment gave a good functional outcome and improved the visual analog score.
Periodontitis is a health problem in the oral cavity that has a significant prevalence in Indonesia. Periodontitis cases have a greater risk in patients with metabolic syndrome. A literature review was carried out to prove the mechanism of accelerating alveolar bone destruction due to chronic periodontitis in patients with metabolic syndrome. The literature review is arrange by searching and selecting publications according to the literature criteria, the information obtained is secondary data. The selected articles were then categorized by discussing the mechanism of alveolar bone damage in chronic periodontitis due to metabolic syndrome. Increased glucose and fat levels in the metabolic syndrome trigger conditions of oxidative stress and induce increased levels of chemerin, ROS secretion, AGE, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby accelerating the process of alveolar bone destruction in patients with chronic periodontitis.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum. This disease can be transmitted vertically from mother to fetus. Syphilis in pregnancy is the second highest cause of stillbirth globally and also contributes to preterm birth, low birth weight, neonatal death, and infection of the newborn (congenital syphilis). A 32-year-old woman of G4P2A1 with 37 weeks of gestation tested positive for VDRL underwent caesarean section due to previous cesarean section and Breech position. A girl with birth weight of 2100gr and body length of 34cm was born. APGAR score was 8/9. The patient was then consulted with a Dermatovenerologist however she was lost to follow up. Prevention of syphilis by screening and antenatal treatment need to be carried out for this disease. The CDC recommends that pregnant women should be treated with the penicillin regimen according to the stage of infection.