04 Dec 2023
30 Nov 2023
Globally, cancer is acknowledged as a serious health problem. Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer, followed by colorectal and cervical cancers. Early identification can enhance patients' quality of life, and screening tests are crucial in lowering morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to identify the obstacles to and attitudes toward cancer screening in Saudi Arabia's eastern province. Between August and November 2022, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among residents of Saudi Arabia's eastern province. A self-administered questionnaire that was distributed online was used to gather the data. There were a total of 761 respondents to the study. 75% of the participants were aware of the screening tests for early cancer detection. About 39.9% of respondents guessed correctly that breast cancer screening should occur between the ages of 40 and 54, but few knew how to retest. More over half, 60.9%, were unaware of the early identification of cervical cancer, while 68.2% were unaware of the early detection of colon cancer. 30% of respondents understood there were no impediments to screening, whereas 18.2% were worried about the findings. Our findings revealed that the majority of the public had limited knowledge and attitudes towards cancer screening, but that no substantial impediments or difficulties existed. Providers of healthcare should spotlight their patients, particularly those at the greatest risk. More initiatives to educate the public about screening testing are required.
Human papillomavirus infection is associated with cervical cancer, one of the major public health problems in developing countries. In the Republic of Congo, despite the high incidence rate, estimated at 25.5% among women, molecular epidemiology data on HPV infections are still limited. We studied the prevalence of HPV in cervical smears of patients who came for screening during a cervical cancer screening campaign. Liquid-based cytology samples were collected for cytologic diagnosis and HPV detection. Nested PCR was performed using HPV consensus primers). Of the 131 women examined, 41 (31,3%) cases of normal cytology and 56 (42,7%) cases of benign cellular changes (BCM) were diagnosed, 18 (13,7%) cases of undetermined cellular atypia (ASCUS), 8 (3,8%) cases of low-grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 5 (2,3%) cases of high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and 3 (3%) cases of invasive cancers (ICC). Our results showed that 70/131 (53%) of total samples were positive for HPV DNA. In women without lesions, an age-specific prevalence of HPV was observed in all age groups. The main local risk factors for HPV infection in women with lesion-free and lesioned cytology were: age, risky sexual behavior, multiple sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse. In conclusion, could be used as an evidence base for future epidemiological surveillance, emphasizing that in addition to Pap smears, HPV testing should be considered in cervical cancer screening and diagnosis to provide a significant opportunity for national health programs to control cervical cancer and save women's lives.
The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness and readiness of UKM health science programs students on education 4.0. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey involving a convenient sample of 265 health science programs students in UKM. A google form questionnaire was constructed including the demographic profiles of the subjects and 10 closed ended questions to assess the awareness and readiness of education 4.0 respectively. Ethics approval was obtained from UKM Research Ethics Committee. The sample comprised of 68.3% females and 31.7% males with an age group ranging from 18-24 years old. Majority were Malay and Chinese students of 45.7% each. Faculty of Health Science has the largest sample size with 52.1%, followed by Faculty of Pharmacy (28.3%) and about 19.6% from the Faculty of Dentistry. Data analysis revealed over 75% of the subjects were aware while more than 65% were ready for education 4.0. Almost two thirds of the students were aware and ready for education 4.0.
Ovarian malignancy is the second most common gynecological cancer and has a significant fatality rate. Several indicators are elevated in malignancy, including the ratio of platelets to lymphocytes, neutrophils to lymphocytes, and D-dimer levels. The prognosis for ovarian cancer is improved by the use of these three diagnostic measures. The purpose of this study is to reveal the function of preoperative D-dimer levels, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as markers of ovarian cancer. A cross-sectional research design was used for this diagnostic test. The study was carried out at Dr. Kariadi Central General Hospital, Semarang from January to December 2017. For categorical data, the Chi-Square Test, Fisher Exact, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used in statistical analysis. By using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the normality test was conducted. Data analysis using one variable and two variables was done. Bivariate analysis using the Unpaired T-Test (assuming the data distribution is normal) or the Non-Parametric Test Mann-Whitney (if the data distribution is not normal). The ROC curve was used to assess the cut-off values for the platelet/lymphocyte ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and D-dimer levels. A total of 123 women met the requirements for the research. The mean platelet/lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in the malignant ovarian neoplasm group than in the benign ovarian neoplasm group. A total of 123 women met the requirements for the research. The mean platelet/lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in the malignant ovarian neoplasm group than in the benign ovarian neoplasm group (272,74±239,32 vs 203,81±193,3, p<0,05). The mean neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in the malignant ovarian neoplasm group compared to the benign ovarian neoplasm group (4,43±7,39 vs 4,21±4,26, p<0,05). In the malignant ovarian neoplasm group, the mean D-Dimer level was significantly higher than in the benign ovarian neoplasm group (5201,45±6203,34 vs 1081,80 ±1360,03, p<0,05). This ROC curve was used to calculate the cut-off point for the platelet/lymphocyte ratio of 179.52, the neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio of 2.62, and the D-Dimer level of 1240. The risk ratio (RP) of ovarian cancer is 1,558 and 3,083 times greater for people with a platelet/lymphocyte ratio and D-dimer levels exceeding the cut-off point, respectively. There is an association between platelet/lymphocyte ratio and D-Dimer levels with the incidence of ovarian tumor malignancy. Meanwhile, there was no association between the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and the incidence of ovarian tumor malignancy. The ratio of platelets to lymphocytes and D-Dimer levels can be used as early indicators of ovarian cancer, without disrupting the previous clinical examination.
In 2018, more than 600 million people are clinically obese. Obesity cause liver fibrosis. The increase in glucose levels triggers the formation of pro-inflammatory factors. TNF-α and PDGF play role as inflammatory factors in liver fibrosis process. This study aimed to examine the effect of sleeve gastrectomy and liver omentoplasty on TNF-α and PDGF level in obese rats model. This study is a laboratory experimental study on 20 male wistar rats. The samples then divided into 2 control groups and 2 treatment groups. Rats were treated with a high-fat diet to become obese based on Lee's criteria >300 and liver fibrosis induction with CCl4, as well as liver sleeve gastrectomy and omentoplasty procedures. PDGF and TNF- α levels were measured by PCR method. TNF-α and PDGF level were found to be the lowest in the treatment 1 group. There was a significant difference on TNF-α and PDGF level across all the study groups. Mann Whitney analysis shows a significant decrease on PDGF level between the control group and the treatment 1 group (p=0,004). It was found that there is a difference on TNF-α level between control with treatment 1 and 2 groups. There is also a significant decrease between positive control and treatment 1 group, and between treatment 1 and 2 groups. Liver omentoplasty and sleeve gastrectomy could reduce the level of pro-inflammatory markers (PDGF and TNF-α) on rats with obese and liver fibrosis model.