31 Jan 2023
31 Jan 2023
Internet addiction is an impulse control disorder like a pathological disorder. Internet addiction occurs through neurohormonal pathways. Addiction activates a combination of several areas of the brain related to pleasure, known as the reward center or pleasure pathway in the brain. Excessive use of the internet can lead to mental health problems. Depression, anxiety and stress related to internet addiction. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of internet addiction with stress, anxiety and depression. This systematic review research includes journals from the Google Scholar, Sciencedirect, and PubMed databases according to PRISMA which include the following requirements: last 5 years, abstract available and English language. The literature search used the keywords “Internet Addiction”, “Stress”, “Anxiety” and other related keywords. The initial search took up 467 literature. After setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria and reading the literature completely, 5 literatures were obtained. Of the 5 studies that we analyzed, all of them showed a significant relationship between internet addiction and stress, depression and anxiety. We suggest future studies with a more rigorous scientific method exploring the effects of mental health on internet addiction.
The use of plant extracts in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles displayed superiority over other biological agents and had and promising strategies for anticancer treatment. This study explored the antitumor effect of biosynthesized copper nanoparticles shelled with turmeric, sumac and vitamin B12 as core-shell or core-double-shell nanostructures at genetic and epigenetic levels and evaluate these nanomaterials side effect on hemopoietic, liver and kidney status in comparison to CuO nanoparticles on tumor bearing mice. All nanomaterials synthesis and characterization were done to confirm the successful synthesis. To conduct this study female mice were injected with Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma cells and then treated with either one of the nanostructures or CuO nanoparticles. Antitumor effect of nanomaterials was evaluated by measurement of tumor volume and serum CA15-3 level. miRNA-34a, and P53 RNA expression were also measured. Side effect of these nanomaterials’ treatment were assessed by screening the complete blood picture and measurement of liver and kidney functions. All nanomaterials significantly diminished tumor growth and CA15-3 level. Although, it seems that CuO nanoparticles showed the most significant reduction in tumor volume, the other nanostructures have higher impact on miRNA-34a and p53 RNA expression moreover, they attenuated the hematological, liver and kidney biomarkers more than CuO NPs did. Using turmeric nanostructures has more powerful effect than Sumac nanostructures otherwise adding vitamin B12 as second shell improve the nanostructures efficiency. The biosynthesized nanostructures induced much deeper effect on epigenetic and genetic levels and attenuated the side effects of nanomaterial treatments than chemically synthesized CuO NPs.
Dentin hypersensitivity has been defined as a short, sharp pain caused by exposure of the exposed dentin to an external stimulus, such as heat, cold, some acidic liquids, and tactile. The use of laser has become more popular recently and appears to be a promising treatment method in this field. The aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of both the Nd:YAG laser and the 810nm diode laser in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity on a sample of patients from Syrian population. This study was conducted on 100 teeth in six patients (2 females and 4 males) suffering from dentinal hypersensitivity. The sample was randomly divided into two groups, each group contains 50 teeth, G1 (Nd: YAG laser 1 w, 10 Hz, 100 mJ, 20s repeated 4 times with 20s interval), G2 (diode laser 810nm 1 W, continuous mode, 30s, repeated 3 times with 20s interval). Each group was divided by the split mouth technique into two categories containing 25 teeth each. The first category was treated by application of the laser alone towards the target area, and the second category treated by application of sodium fluoride gel for one minute, and then the laser was applied with the same settings as the first category. The pain was evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS) of 100 degrees before, immediately after treatment, and after (3 - 6 and 9) months by applying an air stream from a dental chair syringe at a distance of 0.5 cm from the target area. The results of this study showed that both types of laser was effective in treating pain caused by dentinal hypersensitivity. The average values of pain reduction on the numeric rating scale (NRS) showed the superiority of the Nd: YAG laser over the 810nm Diode laser after treatment, and at all stages of observation. Although no statistical significant differences appeared between laser application alone and combined application of laser after sodium fluoride gel in pain reduction values, the combined technique resulted in slightly more pain reduction than the laser application alone. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of applying both 810nm diode laser / Nd: YAG laser alone and in combination with sodium fluoride gel is confirmed. In addition, the use of 810nm diode laser can be considered as a simple, reliable, and cost effective treatment method when compared with the use of Nd: YAG laser, which have an expensive operational charges that are not suitable for all patients.