02 Dec 2022
30 Nov 2022
Brain injuries are serious health problems and require appropriate management strategies in the healing process. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of minocycline and single N-Acetylcysteine compared to the administration of a combination of minocycline or NAC in reducing the expression of Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) in the brains of experimental animals with brain injuries for seven days after brain injury. The experimental animals were wistar mice (n = 65) that were divided into 5 groups. 1) brain injury treatment and minocycline 45 mg/kg body weight orally (MN), 2) brain injury treatment and NAC 150 mg/kg intraperitoneal (NAC), 3) brain injury treatment and minocycline combination NAC (MCN), 4) brain injury treatment and positive control 0.9% saline 1cc intra peritoneal (PC), and 5) without treatment of brain injury and drug administration (NC). The subjects were observed on days 3, 5 and 7. The repeated measures ANOVA was applied to analyze the data with SPSS v.25. The combination of MN 13.5 mg and NAC 45 mg/kg body weight (4.62, 95% CI 3.40; 5.83 & 6.76, 95% CI 4.90; 8.61 p = 0.00) did not perform better than a single dose of each drug on Aquaporin-4. Moreover, the combination of NAC and Minocycline had no effect on Aquaporin-4 and the administration of a single drug minocycline was found to be better on the 3rd and 5th days, while the administration of NAC was better on the 7th day as shown by the decrease in Aquaporin-4 levels.
The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide represents a global public health emergency. Healthcare professionals play a major role in educating patients regarding important self-care and diabetes management strategies which can help prevent long-term complications. This study aimed to assess knowledge and practice regarding diabetes self-management among patients with type 1 and type 2 DM attending a diabetes education clinic in Oman. In addition, the study aimed to compare levels of knowledge and practice between new referrals and follow-up patients who had received more than two educational sessions. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care institution in Muscat, Oman. A total of 181 sequential adult patients who attended the outpatient diabetes clinic between March and October 2018 were included in the study. Participants were categorized into new referrals who had not yet received diabetes education, and follow-up patients who had received more than two educational sessions from the diabetes educator. A previously validated self-administered survey was used to assess levels of knowledge and practice regarding diabetes self-management in the two groups. Of the 181 participants, 61 (33.7%) were newly referred, and 120 (66.3%) were follow-up patients. The mean age was 33.3 ± 12.9 years and 55.8% were female. Overall, 64.1% of the cohort demonstrated excellent knowledge regarding diabetes self-management, while 23.2% and 12.7% had moderate and poor levels of knowledge, respectively. Moreover, 73.5% exhibited satisfactory practices, while inadequate practices were reported by 26.5%. Overall, the diabetes education clinic was effective, with statistically significant differences in knowledge and practice levels noted between the two groups (p = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). While the whole cohort demonstrated acceptable overall levels of diabetes self-management knowledge and practice, patients who had attended a structured diabetes education program demonstrated substantial improvements in knowledge and behavior compared to the new referrals. As such, specialized diabetes education programs are recommended to help reduce the incidence of acute and chronic complications of DM, thereby reducing the burden of this disease in Oman.
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition with an unclear etiology. Even though the World Health Organization (WHO) defines OLP as a precancerous condition, the reasons that trigger cancer progression in OLP lesions remain unknown. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an essential enzyme for inflammatory processes and cell proliferation that has been discovered to be overexpressed in OLP lesions in this chronic inflammatory state. The purpose of present research was to determine COX-2 expression levels in histologically identified OLP samples and to correlate it with clinical and histological characteristics. Present study included 30 histopathologically confirmed Oral Lichen Planus lesions. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect COX-2 protein expression. COX-2 expression was compared to certain clinical and histological parameters. The (SPSS) program version (20.0) was utilized to find the relationships between COX-2 expression and these parameters. A Pearson’s correlation between age and sex groups revealed that studies of various age groups revealed a comparable gender distribution with a significant link (P = 0.017). OLP lesions are most commonly found in the buccal mucosa. There is a significant decrease in COX-2 expression was detected in all studied cases of the study. The level of the COX-2 expression rise in correlation with clinical manifestations and cancer development. Through inflammatory reactions, COX-2 is associated with epithelium damage and carcinogenesis pathways.
Hypertension disease is one of the biological, biochemical, and physiological disorders which infect most people especially pregnant women. The current research was performed to assess and evaluate the concentrations of glutathione -S – transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde and urea in blood serum belonging to different hypertensive pregnants in Basrah Governorate – Iraq according to age and embryo sex factors for these pregnants. Catalase recorded a high significant decreasing (p***<0.0001) in all women depending on age and embryo sex of pregnants while GST recorded only a significant decreasing (p**<0.01) in the third age trimester (34-43 years). Urea showed a highly significant increase (p***<0.001) in patients pregnants in the three age trimesters and embryo sex (male and female) whereas malondialdehyde recorded a high significant increasing (p***<0.001) in the first and third age trimesters and significant increasing (p**<0.01) according to embryo sex.
Despite the rarity, bone tumors are among the most types of cancer that influence patients’ quality of life by causing pain, fatigue, and reduction in physical activity level, as well as having substantial psychological and social impact. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of life of patients who have been diagnosed with bone tumor. This descriptive study used WHO quality of life questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-BM22, to collect data from 120 patients in (specialized nuclear medicine and oncology hospital), from December 1, 2021 to March 1, 2022. Descriptive and inferential statistics utilized to analyze data by (SPSS) program version 27, with Chi-square test and P<0.05 significant level. (87.5%) of patients were diagnosed with metastatic bone tumor, while (12.5%) diagnosed with primary bone tumor, the highest percentage of patients was women (66.7%). The study found that the bone tumor had negative impact on patient quality of life in term of physical activity, fatigue, inability to work, worry and negative feelings, and sleep problems. Metastatic bone tumor is significantly more common than primary bone tumor. Bone tumors have significant impact on patients’ quality of life in physical, independency, and psychological domains. There is a significant correlation between patient’ financial difficulties and his or her psychological condition.