04 Dec 2023
30 Nov 2023
Oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system play an important role in podocyte injury and hence in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). To assess the combination of silybin and telmisartan effect in preventing podocyte detachment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups, each of 4. The 1st group acts as normal rats. The 2nd group acts as untreated diabetic rats. The 3rd group, 4th group, and 5th group act as treated diabetic rats with silybin at doses 50 mg/kg/day, telmisartan at doses 3 mg/kg/day, and a combination of telmisartan 3 mg/kg/day and silybin 50 mg/kg/day. Urinary levels of podocin, nephrin, albumin, and serum cystatin C levels were measured at the end of the study by ELISA. The level of nephrin, podocin, and albumin urine, as well as serum cystatin C level, were significantly lower in the combination therapy group compared with the positive control group. Compared with the monotherapy group, urinary nephrin, podocin, and albumin levels were significantly lower in the combination therapy group, while serum cystatin C levels were not different. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, the combination of silybin and telmisartan is better than monotherapy in preventing podocyte detachment.
To investigate the comparative effects of Cannabis sativa and cannabigerolic acid in streptozotocin-(STZ) induced diabetic rats. The study was performed by using different group-normal control, diabetic control, glibenclamide 5 mg/kg p.o., Cannabis sativa (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) and cannabigerolic acid (50 and 100 mg/kg/ p.o.), respectively The anti-diabetic activity was assessed using blood glucose level, lipid profile and insulin, respectively. The biochemical indicator assessment was done by malondialdehyde (MDA), reduce glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT). Cannabigerolic acid exhibited an antidiabetic effect by significantly decreased the level of blood glucose, regain lipid profile level, increase serum insulin level and significant (p<0.05) biochemical marker i.e. MDA, GSH, SOD and CAT as compared to Cannabis sativa. The results of the study demonstrated that the treatment with cannabigerolic acid was more potent effect compared to Cannabis sativa. Our study indicates the role of Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) play a role in preventing diabetic complications as compare to Cannabis sativa.
Neurological signs and symptoms are one of the commonest complaint of patients living with HIV (PLWHA). In these patients, radiological evaluation using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often reveal an intracranial mass lesion, which often presents as a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Although there is no epidemiological data on the rate of misdiagnosis and/or mistreatment of PLWHAs presenting with CNS symptoms, numerous case reports find that distinguishing between different etiologies of CNS symptoms in PLWHAs is often difficult. A 42-year-old female with known HIV status presented to the ER with headache for 2 weeks before admission and left-sided hemiparesis and cranial nerve neuropathy, with intact consciousness. Her head CT revealed multiple contrast-enhancing lesions with meningeal enhancement, features commonly found in either toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), progressive multiple leukoencephalopathy (PML), or tuberculous (TB) meningitis. Based on her positive toxoplasma serology, she was treated empirically with anti-toxoplasmosis regimens, and her symptoms improved. An approach based on symptomatic presentation (diffuse or focal), neuroepidemiology, and status of immunosuppression is advised. Physicians are encouraged to use diagnostic algorithms to treat these patients.
The mycelial extracts of Polycephalomyces nipponicus and Ophiocordyceps sobolifera have been shown to possess antibacterial activity in several recent studies. This study aimed to examine the mechanism of action of both medicinal fungal mycelial extracts against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) DMST 20651 and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) DMST 4738 compared with linezolid and vancomycin antibiotics by using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM analysis showed that both isolates of MRSA treated with 1× minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both mycelial extracts had varied in cell size. While the TEM analysis showed that the cell shape is not round and distort, bacterial cell walls and cell membrane were altered and damaged, leading to cell death. Similar results were observed in the treatment of linezolid and vancomycin. These results suggested that P. nipponicus and O. sobolifera mycelial extracts exhibited to inhibit bacterial growth by disrupting peptidoglycan formation, which is a component of the cell wall and resulted in cell death.
The article examines the legal duty of its citizens to take care of their health established by the laws of Ukraine. The article reveals and substantiates the constitutional-law nature and significance of this duty, its belonging to the sphere of public law in connection with the realization of the general interest in maintaining an adequate level of public health with the simultaneous derivative provision of an individual interest in health protection. The problems of the content of this duty and its provision by society and the state with the help of moral and legal responsibility are investigated: the structure of a legal duty is analyzed, consisting of obligations corresponding to the eligibles of the appropriate subjective right; clarifies the role and significance of moral responsibility (moral duty) and its relationship with legal responsibility.