04 Dec 2023
30 Nov 2023
The mannose receptor (MR-CD206), is one of type I transmembrane proteins that possess structurally and functionally related domains as a pattern recognition receptor. It is expressed primarily on the membrane of M2 macrophages and dendritic cells, which have an important role in nonspecific and specific immunity. In this study, the serum levels of MR were examined in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MR concentrations were measured in the sera of 50 patients and 38 healthy individuals (control) groups. COVID-19 infection in RA patients has also been investigated. The MR value of RA patients was significantly higher than that of the control group (p <0.005). There is no significant difference in gender, however males have higher MR levels than females, whereas COVID-19 infected RA patients did not show any change or significant difference in the concentrations of MR serum level. We found that untreated RA patients have elevated serum MR levels, making MR a potential marker of the pathogenesis and progression of RA.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) a method in assisted reproduction technology by injecting a single spermatozoa directly into the cytoplasm of a mature oocyte via micromanipulation. The capacity of ICSI as a therapy for almost any type of spermatozoa and oocytes has made it the most successful treatment for infertility. Despite its high success rate, fertilization failure in ICSI still occurs this due to the quality of oocyte and sperm so that the oocyte cannot be activated. This research aimed to know the effect of calcium ionophore supplementation in Kacang goat’s oocyte after ICSI in fertilization rate and embryo development. This research was divided into 2 groups, control group: oocyte was fertilized with ICSI method and treatment group: oocyte was fertilized with ICSI method and supplemented in calcium ionophore 5.2 µl/ml during 15 minutes. Fertilization rate and embryo development at embryo 2 cells and 4 cells were observed under inverted microscope. Based on the statistical analysis it demonstrated there were significant difference in fertilization rate and embryo development between control group and treatment group (p<0.05). Fertilization rate in treatment group (3.56±1.42) was higher than control group (1.56±1.128). The embryo development from zygote to embryo two cells was higher in treatment group (3.56±1.42) than control group (0.78±0.09). The embryo development from embryo two cells to embryo four cells was higher in treatment group (3.33±1.12) than control group (0.56±0.26). In conclusion the used of calcium ionophore 5.2 µl/ml can activate Kacang goat’s oocyte after ICSI and improve fertilization rate and maintain embryo development.
This study was sought to evaluate the opportunities and threats of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) practices, as well as to develop evidence-based recommendations for policymakers and programme planners. In Qasimabad, Hyderabad, a cross-sectional research was conducted. The study included 300 parents and caregivers of infants who received IPV at seven Expanded Program Immunization (EPI) facilities and outreach sessions, as well as 15 vaccinators and four programme administrators. Data was gathered by convenient sampling with the use of an EPI Monitoring Checklist and a pre-designed questionnaire. SPSS version 23.0 was used for the descriptive analysis. This research identifies the obstacles and areas for development in Pakistan's efforts to eradicate polio and areas of improvements which can be considered for success of program. About 61.7% of parents believed the new vaccination would provide better polio protection, and 65% of babies got IPV on the recommended schedule. Threats were 80% percent of vaccine recipients being male, 46.6 % of parents objected to the third jab, and 50% percent of parents being unaware of IPV. Opportunities include timely IPV vaccination and community acceptance of a novel vaccine; nevertheless, key risks include illiterate moms, a small number of female vaccinators, and a lack of IPV knowledge among parents.
SARS-CoV-2 was first isolated in bronchoalveloar lavage (BAL) fluid from three patients with COVID-19 at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The cases are increasing quickly with global mortality rate of 2.12%. The main cause of COVID-19 death is hypoxic respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Endothelial cell damage has a central role in ARDS pathogenesis and multi-organ failure in COVID-19. The endothelium, under homeostasis condition, is surrounded by mural cells (pericytes), which maintain vascular integrity and barrier function. These cells prevent inflammation by limiting the interaction of endothelial cells with immune cells and platelets and inhibit coagulation by expressing coagulation inhibitors and blood-clotting enzymes and producing glycocalyx. Vascular endothelial glycocalyx has a crucial role in endothelial function and is degraded systemically in elderly conditions and various comorbidities, which can be a potential mechanism for the development of lethal complications from COVID-19. Glycocalyx degradation due to endotheliopathy in SARS-CoV-2 infection causes increased levels of its fragments such as syndecan-1 and hyaluronan in the blood. Data from previous studies showed that the levels of these two biomarkers increased significantly in septic patient and several viral infections such as Kawasaki and dengue. These biomarkers are also markers of organ damage. Therefore, it can be indicated that hyaluronan and syndecan-1 are significant prognostic markers for morbidity and survival in COVID-19 patient.
The incidence of postoperative AKI CABG with CPB at RSUD Dr. Soetomo Surabaya reached 69.8%. This study aims to analyze several risk factors that are still controversial, including: perioperative MAP, duration of CPB, plasma osmolarity, and GFR. This study is a prospective analytic observational cohort design conducted on CABG patients with the CPB technique without a history of previous kidney disease at RSUD Dr. Soetomo Surabaya in September-December 2020. Examination of risk factors was carried out before, during, and after surgery, until the patient was discharged from the hospital. There were 21 patients who entered the study. A total of 14 people (61.9%) were diagnosed as AKI after surgery, 11 people (78.6%) of whom were male. Patients with AKI had lower MAP at the time of surgery (79.9 ± 12.6) and after surgery (99.5 ± 13.0). Patients with AKI also experienced a longer duration of CPB (139.1±64.0), and also had a lower plasma osmolarity (315.2±60.7). These three factors were not statistically significant. A significant difference was only found in the lower eGFR (51.1±15.8) with a p-value of 0.005 and an AUC of 0.837. The cut-off value of eGFR was 63.3 with an OR of 22.0. Of all risk factors assessed, only eGFR was found to be an independent risk factor for AKI after cardiac surgery, especially CABG with CPB technique.