08 Oct 2023
31 Oct 2023
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Diabetes results in both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Among the microvascular complications, diabetic kidney disease is one of the most serious, with significant impact on morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. Urinary laminin excretion is higher in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls, even before the development of microalbuminuria. determine the value of measurement of urinary laminin as an early marker for prediction of renal function impairment in patients with type-2 diabetes. This is a case-controlled study conducted on 60 patients (40 diabetic patients, 20 non-diabetic CKD patients) admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, Menoufia University Hospitals. 20 healthy individuals were also included as a control group during the period of study. Informed consent was obtained from all participants who were be fully informed about the study according to ethical medical committee of Menoufia University Hospitals. Routine investigations were done then measurement of urinary laminin level by ELISA as a specific investigation. The urinary laminin was significantly higher in patients with proteinuria (both diabetic and non-diabetic) than control group and diabetics without proteinuria. It showed higher specificity with proteinuria in diabetic patients (80%) and non-diabetic CKD patients (100%) than in diabetic patients without proteinuria (70%). we concluded that Urinary laminin could be used as an early indicator for the presence of nephropathy in type 2-diabetic patients even before the appearance of proteinuria and instead of Microalbuminuria.
Processed foods are used across the world and there are country-specific regulations for health and quality. India also has regulations that mandate manufacturers to display the nutritive value of food products. Our objective was to estimate the nutritive value of ‘ready-to-eat’ foods and foods that need minimal preparation (pre-cooked/frozen) or no preparation available in the online market in India. A cross-sectional survey of all the processed food items available in the online market was done during April – May 2020. These were operationally classified as baked products, beverages, breakfast cereals, heat-and-eat products, pasta-noodles, snacks, and soups. The nutritive value as mentioned on the food labels were noted from 398 such products; baked products (49), beverages (84), and breakfast cereals (44), heat and eat products (55), pasta and noodles (39), snacks (87) and soups (40). Breakfast cereals and heat-and-eat products had the best balance of calories, proteins, and fats. Median energy was 386.9 Kcalories (IQR: 25.6), 8.3g proteins (IQR: 2.6), and fats 4.2g (IQR: 4.9) in the breakfast cereal whereas the heat and eat products per 100g had a median of 344 kcal (IQR: 205), 8 g protein (IQR 5.3) and 6g (8.4) median fat. The highest fat content was in the snacks with a median of 23.3g (median: 21.6) with the highest up to 38g. Transfats levels were missing in 86 (21.6%) products. Sodium levels were missing in 215 (54%) products. Initiatives for healthy processed foods and appropriate labeling will aid consumers to make an informed decision while purchasing these products from the market.
Alleged ingestion of foreign body is one of common presenting symptom in otolaryngology clinic. This problem appeared in both pediatric age population and adult. Here we reported two cases of edentulous elderly men that presented with acute onset of dysphagia during Eid al Adha festive and both are successfully managed via two different approaches; the rigid and flexible oesophagoscopy because of different indications and existing co-morbidities. In this case series we highlight options available for retrieval of oesophageal foreign body in consideration of certain situation such as uncontrolled medical illness that may delay the removal intervention.
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disease encountered in otolaryngology. The presentation differs from gastroesohageal reflux disease (GERD) despite sharing similar pathophysiology. There are various postulated risk factors to LPR amongst which is central obesity. The aim of this study is to establish central obesity as a risk factor in developing LPR. This is a comparative cross-sectional study in which 180 patients who were 18 years old and above regardless of obesity status without confounding factors in causing laryngeal mucosal change were enrolled. These patients were not diagnosed with LPR prior. No pH studies or empirical treatment with proton pump inhibitors were given before. Reflux symptom index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS) were used to screen for LPR sign and symptoms. 82 central-obese patients based on waist-to-hip ratio (0.9 and 0.85 and above for male and female respectively) and 98 non central-obese patients were in this study. There was a significant higher value of both RSI and RFS in central-obese patients with significant positive correlation between these variables. This study derived a linear correlation between central obesity and LPR based on the relatively simple and non-invasive RSI and RFS tool.
Recommendation systems usage is predominantly found in recommending online products and services to end consumers. It does the job of information filtering from a large pool of information available to provide a better vision in assisting decision-making. In recent times recommendation systems are making their strong presence in serious decision-making domains like health care which needs to adhere to minimal or zero error tolerance. Recent advancement in recommendation techniques, methods to address complex data and techniques to adapt context-awareness has improved the effectiveness of recommendation system. Health care experts use their past experiences in recommending high-quality medical treatment to patients. Hospitals maintain the collection of patient's information history consisting of clinical trial data and their health data in records. It helps experts to analyze them for decision making. There is a need for strategizing health care programs using digital techniques to make use of massive medical information resources available to provide scientific decision-making for precision diagnostics, treatment processes, preventive and rehabilitation programs to bring more fruitful results in combating health scares. This paper addresses the mapping of the complex health care data set into recommendation system terminology. The paper also discusses techniques to model diagnosis and treatment process recommendation system as a tool to assist medical practitioners to accurately diagnose a disease and recommend with precise treatment process for continual treatment care programs like cardio care, maternal care, TB care, and even for the COVID-19 treatment process.