25 Sep 2021
31 Oct 2021
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Diabetes results in both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Among the microvascular complications, diabetic kidney disease is one of the most serious, with significant impact on morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. Urinary laminin excretion is higher in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls, even before the development of microalbuminuria. determine the value of measurement of urinary laminin as an early marker for prediction of renal function impairment in patients with type-2 diabetes. This is a case-controlled study conducted on 60 patients (40 diabetic patients, 20 non-diabetic CKD patients) admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, Menoufia University Hospitals. 20 healthy individuals were also included as a control group during the period of study. Informed consent was obtained from all participants who were be fully informed about the study according to ethical medical committee of Menoufia University Hospitals. Routine investigations were done then measurement of urinary laminin level by ELISA as a specific investigation. The urinary laminin was significantly higher in patients with proteinuria (both diabetic and non-diabetic) than control group and diabetics without proteinuria. It showed higher specificity with proteinuria in diabetic patients (80%) and non-diabetic CKD patients (100%) than in diabetic patients without proteinuria (70%). we concluded that Urinary laminin could be used as an early indicator for the presence of nephropathy in type 2-diabetic patients even before the appearance of proteinuria and instead of Microalbuminuria.
Processed foods are used across the world and there are country-specific regulations for health and quality. India also has regulations that mandate manufacturers to display the nutritive value of food products. Our objective was to estimate the nutritive value of ‘ready-to-eat’ foods and foods that need minimal preparation (pre-cooked/frozen) or no preparation available in the online market in India. A cross-sectional survey of all the processed food items available in the online market was done during April – May 2020. These were operationally classified as baked products, beverages, breakfast cereals, heat-and-eat products, pasta-noodles, snacks, and soups. The nutritive value as mentioned on the food labels were noted from 398 such products; baked products (49), beverages (84), and breakfast cereals (44), heat and eat products (55), pasta and noodles (39), snacks (87) and soups (40). Breakfast cereals and heat-and-eat products had the best balance of calories, proteins, and fats. Median energy was 386.9 Kcalories (IQR: 25.6), 8.3g proteins (IQR: 2.6), and fats 4.2g (IQR: 4.9) in the breakfast cereal whereas the heat and eat products per 100g had a median of 344 kcal (IQR: 205), 8 g protein (IQR 5.3) and 6g (8.4) median fat. The highest fat content was in the snacks with a median of 23.3g (median: 21.6) with the highest up to 38g. Transfats levels were missing in 86 (21.6%) products. Sodium levels were missing in 215 (54%) products. Initiatives for healthy processed foods and appropriate labeling will aid consumers to make an informed decision while purchasing these products from the market.
Alleged ingestion of foreign body is one of common presenting symptom in otolaryngology clinic. This problem appeared in both pediatric age population and adult. Here we reported two cases of edentulous elderly men that presented with acute onset of dysphagia during Eid al Adha festive and both are successfully managed via two different approaches; the rigid and flexible oesophagoscopy because of different indications and existing co-morbidities. In this case series we highlight options available for retrieval of oesophageal foreign body in consideration of certain situation such as uncontrolled medical illness that may delay the removal intervention.
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disease encountered in otolaryngology. The presentation differs from gastroesohageal reflux disease (GERD) despite sharing similar pathophysiology. There are various postulated risk factors to LPR amongst which is central obesity. The aim of this study is to establish central obesity as a risk factor in developing LPR. This is a comparative cross-sectional study in which 180 patients who were 18 years old and above regardless of obesity status without confounding factors in causing laryngeal mucosal change were enrolled. These patients were not diagnosed with LPR prior. No pH studies or empirical treatment with proton pump inhibitors were given before. Reflux symptom index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS) were used to screen for LPR sign and symptoms. 82 central-obese patients based on waist-to-hip ratio (0.9 and 0.85 and above for male and female respectively) and 98 non central-obese patients were in this study. There was a significant higher value of both RSI and RFS in central-obese patients with significant positive correlation between these variables. This study derived a linear correlation between central obesity and LPR based on the relatively simple and non-invasive RSI and RFS tool.
Stunting is a condition of delayed growth and development in adolescents due to chronic malnutrition. Adolescents who have different physical conditions with their peers tend to feel insecure, so that it can cause self-concept disorders. To determine the characteristics and self-concept along with the components in adolescents aged between 11-15 years old who have experience stunting in the Guntur District, Demak Regency. Quantitative research design with a Cross Sectional approach. The population of this research was students who experienced stunting in the Guntur District, Demak Regency. The number of samples are 35 students using purposive sampling technique. Data analysis method using univariate. Adolescents who have a positive self-concept are 18 adolescents (51.4%), positive self-image are 21 respondents (60%), negative self-ideal 19 respondents (54.3%), negative self-esteem are 20 respondents (57.1%), negative self-role totaled 18 respondents (51.4%), and positive self-identity amounted to 18 respondents (51.4%). Adolescents who experience stunting in the Guntur District, Demak Regency, some have a positive self-concepts totaling and some have a negative. It is hoped that this research can be used as a reference for further research and can add more variables and different research methods Adolescents who experience stunting in the Guntur District, Demak Regency, some have a positive self-concepts totaling and some have a negative. It is hoped that this research can be used as a reference for further research and can add more variables and different research methods Adolescents who experience stunting in the Guntur District, Demak Regency, some have a positive self-concepts totaling and some have a negative. It is hoped that this research can be used as a reference for further research and can add more variables and different research methods.