23 Feb 2024
29 Feb 2024
This was multicenter study of the district of Sylhet of Bangladesh to evaluate the clinical features and coexisting diseases of COVID-19 patients. The secondary objective was to compare the clinical features and coexisting diseases in different age groups and among severe and non-severe participants. This was a cross-sectional study. Study places were COVID-19 isolation units of four tertiary hospitals of Sylhet district of Bangladesh. Total number of participants was 481. Total 272 participants out of 481 were tested COVID-19 positive. Mean age was 60.72 years for the COVID-19 patients. Fever (p=0.008) and Diarrhea (p=0.0184) were higher in the COVID-19 positive group. Among the 272 positive patients HTN (p<0.001), DM (p<0.001), Chronic kidney disease (CKD) (p<0.001) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (p<0.001) were significantly more in number in the older age group (60 years and older). Mortality was also higher (p=0.00078) in the older age group. Regarding the clinical feature shortness of breathing (SOB) was higher in number (p=.009) in the severely ill patients. COPD / asthma was significantly higher (p=.0011) in the severely ill group. Older group COVID-19 patients are at risk of higher mortality. Respiratory supports like high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), non-invasive and mechanical ventilators requirement were significantly higher in the older group.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered to be multifactorial. AD is associated with loss of neurons, stem cell regenerative therapy seems to be promising in AD. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of stem cells in rats with scopolamine-induced model of dementia of Alzheimer’s type. The Extrapolation Escape Task and Passive Avoidance Test were used for evaluating the cognitive functions in rats with scopolamine-induced AD model at different period of disease and after mesenchymal stem cells intravenous introduction. The concentration of parameters of endothelial dysfunction, redox state and ROS generation was measured by using the spectrophotometric, photometric, immuno-enzymatic method and flow cytometry. Scopolamine injections in rats resulted in the lipid peroxidation - antioxidant system imbalance and vascular damage. At later stages of the disease, lipid peroxidation was enhanced, the endothelial dysfunction was developing and progressing. The most part of animals with developing endothelial dysfunction in cerebral vessels suffered from cognitive impairment. The regenerative effect of stem cells is more pronounced in animals with a 4-week scopolamine-induced dementia than in animals with a 2-week experimental model. The mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone-marrow had positive effects on cognitive functions, endothelial regeneration and redox state in rats with scopolamine-induced dementia of Alzheimer’s type.
Many patients with Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) do not have any of the traditional risk factors associated with head and neck squamous cell cancers. Epidemiological and molecular studies have identified human papillomavirus (HPV) as a causative agent. The aim of the study is to find the relation between HPV-16 infected LSCC and T and N stage of the tumor. Prospective, cross section Tertiary university hospital. The current study was conducted on 47 cases suffered from LSCC, all patients subjected to clinical, radiological and endoscopic assessment of the tumor. Biopsy was taken from each patient and stained by H&E to confirm the clinical diagnosis and also Immunohistchemical staining was done to evaluate infected tumors by HPV-16. SPSS program version 16 was used to assess the correlation between HPV-16 affected tumors and T and N stage of the LSCC. The study sample pointed out that the majority of patients were in T2 and N0 stage. The current study showed that most of the patients infected with HPV-16 presented in T2 stage (six out of nine patients 66.7%), while the majority HPV-16 negative patients also presented in the same stage (36 patients 94.7%). There is no difference between HPV-16 positive and negative patients in N stage as the majority of both groups presented in N0, 66.7% in positive cases compared to 76.3% in negative cases. Our results reveal that 22.2% of HPV positive cases were in stage T3 and T4 compared to 0% in the HPV negative cases in the same stages. The second common presenting N stage of HPV-16 positive cases was N2, while in HPV negative patients was stage N1. Our results showed that there were no correlation between T nor N stage of HPV-16 infected LSCC, but indeed not statistically significant we found that HPV positive cases tend to be presented more in advanced T and N stage compared to HPV negative cases.
Changes in vocal patterns after adenotonsillectomy are questionable. Few articles had assessed acoustic changes in the voice of children pre and post adenotonsillectomy. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of removal of hypertrophied tonsil and adenoid on the voice of children. prospective study tertiary care hospital (Minia university hospital) The study included fifty children ranging in age between 4 and 12 years, with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, indicated for adenotonsillectomy. Auditory perceptual assessment of speech included nasality, degree of hyponasality, degree of open nasality, and degree of dysphonia. Acoustic analysis of voice was done pre, one month and three months’ post adenotonsillectomy, using multidimensional voice program software (MVDP). Acoustic parameters- fundamental frequency (Hz), shimmer (dB), jitter (%), and noise- harmony ratio (NHR; dB) were analyzed. Our results reveal that there is statistical significance in FO, Jitters, Shimmer between preoperative and postoperative results and improvement continues even after three months postoperatively there’s no statistical significance regarding HNR preoperative and post-operative. There is weak statistical significant in correlation between HNR and APA of Voice and APA of speech after one month postoperatively as (P=0.047) Hypertrophied tonsil and Adenoid can lead to Hyponasal speech and/ or dysphonia this can be improved after their removal, so voice and speech changes that results from enlarged tonsil and Adenoid can be considered as indication of adenotosillectomy.
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of vitamin D level and supplement with glycated hemoglobin level in children with T1DM attending a tertiary institution in Oman. In addition, we described the trend of vit D deficiency among included patients. For this, a prospective cohort study was conducted. Data was collected for total of 131 pediatric patients with T1DM. Vitamin D level was measured at the baseline (2014) and after one year. Their glycated hemoglobin was collected at the baseline of the study and at three subsequent time points from the baseline within the 1-year period. Subjects were categorized according to their vitamin D status at baseline to; sufficient, insufficient and deficient. Patients received vitamin D supplementation according to their vitamin D status for one year. At the end, the mean glycated hemoglobin for a 9 months period was compared. 59 patients (45%) were vitamin D sufficient, 46 (35%) were vitamin D insufficient and 26 (20%) were vitamin D deficient. Their baseline HbA1c was 9.6%, 9.6% and 8.7% for the three groups respectively. There was no significant difference in the subsequent mean HbA1c in the three groups. HbA1c of insufficient group changed insignificantly from 9.5% to 9.6%, while HbA1c of deficient group changed insignificantly from 8.7% to 9.3%. Vit D inadequacy dominates the trend of this vitamin in Omani children with type T1DM. It seems that neither the level, nor the supplementation of vitamin D supplementation has an effect on glycemic control.