25 Sep 2021
31 Oct 2021
This study aimed to investigate the drug identifiers used in Thailand and other tools that Thai community pharmacists used for drug identification. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted in pharmacies in Thailand in 2018. The protocol and materials for the research were approved by Institutional Review Board. The participants were selected by convenience sampling. A total of 20 pharmacists were included in this study. The main reason that the identification was required was that pharmacists encountered drugs that were prescribed or dispensed without labels. Pharmacists used information on packaging, drug products, and patient information to guide the identification. The most used approaches for medication identification were to use self-reference, to search in books, and to ask other pharmacists. Features of the identifiers that were favored by pharmacists included ease of use, trustworthiness, user interaction, availability of specific drug categories, up-to-dateness, and free accessibility.
Cellular immunity plays an important role in the protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The AHCC supplementation concomitant with anti-tuberculosis drugs is expected to increase the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes as protective lymphocytes. This study aims to evaluate levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells before and after AHCC supplementation. The study design was a double-blind randomized clinical trial, in which AHCC and placebo were administered for 3 months. The levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocytes were collected at baseline and third month after AHCC and placebo administration. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocytes statistically. Sixty subjects (30 AHCC group and 30 placebo group) showed the CD4+ and the CD8+ levels after AHCC supplementation were better than placebo. Absolute CD4+ cell levels AHCC vs placebo were mean±se, baseline (519±39.4 vs 473±47.5 cells/µl, p=0.506) and after 3 months (695±52.1 vs. 637.5±50.4 cells/µl, p=0.574). Absolute CD8+ cell levels in the AHCC group vs placebo were baseline (488.8±46.9 vs 367.5±39.8 cells/µl, p=0.071) and after the 3rd month (628.7±101.9 vs 480,2±42.2; p=0.501 cells/µl). Percentage of CD4+ cells in AHCC group Vs placebo group, baseline (35±1.8 vs 32.5±1.6; p=0.391), and after 3 months (36.1±1.8 vs 34.7± 1.8; p=0.701). While the percentage of CD8+ cells in the AHCC vs placebo was baseline (30.3±1.7 vs 25.2±1.4; p=0.044), and after the 3rd month (28.8±1.8 vs. 25.3 ±1.3; p=0.144). This study cocluded that increased levels of CD4+ and CD8+ cells after AHCC administration was better than placebo in TB patients.
Considering the importance of cross-infection control, this study was performed to assess the knowledge of general dentists in Qazvin about the current practice of disinfecting dental impressions. In this cross- sectional study, questionnaires were distributed to 109 general dentists. The questionnaires consisted of 10 questions; the mean correct answers to a minimum of 8 questions were considered as good, the mean correct answers to 5–8 questions as moderate, and to <5 questions as poor. The subjects’ level of knowledge under study was the percentage of subjects providing correct responses to >8 questions. Data were submitted to t-test and ANOVA on SPSS 25. The knowledge level of general dentists was 39.4%, with a mean correct response rate of 6.61±1.83. The knowledge level of female dentists was significantly higher than that of male dentists (P=0.00). Moreover, the dentists with a job experience of ≥5 years were significantly less aware than those with <5 years of experience (P=0.00). According to the results of this study, the general dentists in Qazvin have moderate knowledge of disinfecting dental impressions. Attempts should be made to increase their knowledge through continuous education.
The complexity of tuberculosis (TB) treatment in HIV-infected patients is facing a challenge to both clinicians and patients. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is known to be beneficial for immunocompromised patients such as cancer patients. This study aims to explore the effect of AHCC to improve the clinical status of pulmonary TB in HIV-infected patients. All patients were followed up for clinical status and chest X-ray examination every three months after AHCC or placebo supplementation. After six months of placebo or AHCC supplementation, all clinical signs and symptoms were improved. None of the patients in both groups have cough and hemoptysis. Shortness of breath has well improved after 6 months of administrating AHCC compared to placebo which was 20%. Meanwhile, appetite has completely improved 100% after 6 months compared to placebo was still 32%. This was in line with the improvement in body weight (72% in placebo group vs 96% in the AHCC group). Meanwhile, nausea has not found in the AHCC group after 6 months compared to placebo has 8%. Also, vomiting was found 16% in the placebo group after 6 months dan no case in the AHCC group. Chest X-ray results showed improvement in both groups. In the sixth month, 80% in the placebo group was normal and 92% in the AHCC group. It is no different in acid fast bacillus (AFB) conversion between both groups. This study concluded that our findings after six-month AHCC 3 g/day supplementation lead to better clinical improvements in TB/HIV patients.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of Er:YAG laser treatment of enamel and bracket base on shear bond strength (SBS) and failure mode of orthodontic brackets to primary molars. Sixty extracted primary molars were collected and randomly assigned into four groups of 15, as follows: Group 1 (Control): conventional acid etching + intact brackets, Group 2: conventional acid etching + laser treated brackets, Group 3: Er.YAG laser etching and conventional acid etching + intact brackets, and Group 4: Er.YAG laser etching and conventional acid etching + laser treated brackets. The Er:YAG laser (2940 nm) was used at settings of 150 mJ, 10 Hz, and 10 seconds for enamel conditioning and 250 mJ, 10 Hz and 10 seconds for bracket treatment. Metal brackets were bonded to teeth with a light-cured composite. After 24 hours’ storage in water, SBS was tested in an Instron machine and the adhesive remnant index was determined. There was a significant difference in SBS between the four groups (P=0.001). Tukey test revealed that the bond strength in group 2 was significantly lower than that of group 3 (P=0.004) and group 4 (P=0.003), whereas other comparisons were not significant (P>0.05). No significant difference was found in ARI scores among the groups (P=0.43). Er:YAG laser etching followed by conventional acid etching was a suitable technique to enhance bracket bond strength to primary enamel. However, laser treatment of new orthodontic brackets had a deleterious effect on bond strength and is not recommended.