25 Sep 2021
31 Oct 2021
Influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza virus which is highly contagious and spread easily. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of influenza (H1N1) type A in patients admitted to Tohid hospital, Sanandaj, Iran during 2013-2014. This study was descriptive. Data were collected using a questionnaire which was designed based on study goals. The questionnaires were completed via interview, observation and performing clinical tests. After clinical confirmation of influenza by a specialist, genotype was determined by PCR. Of the total 76 cases, 36 cases (48.6%) were male, mean age was 42.7 ± 16.3 and 13.5% were rural and 86.5 were urban dwellers. 52 patients (70.3%) were hospitalized and 22 (29.7%) were outpatients. Travel history was including, abroad 9.5%, domestic 16.2% and without traveling 75.3%. The average time between referring to the doctor and sampling for H1N1 was 2.7 days. The prevalence of influenza (H1N1 A) was 1.4%. The low incidence of H1N1 influenza type A in this study was probably due to travel to infected areas. Considering virus mutation, the readiness of health services to prevent an epidemic of this disease is essential and recommended.
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye complication in diabetic patients that early detection of this complication is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate ophthalmic artery index in diabetic retinopathy by Doppler ultrasound. In this cross-sectional study, 64 patients were studied in 4 groups (healthy, diabetic without retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy). Resistance index (RI) and Pulsatile Index (PI) were assessed by color Doppler ultrasound. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test and ROC curve. RI in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy has the highest mean (0.83) and the lowest mea was observed in healthy subjects (0.54) (P <0.001) as well as in PI, the highest rate was in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy (1.41) and the lowest was in healthy subjects (0.92) (P <0.001). The results of our study showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy of RI and PI in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy in the best cut-off points (0.645 and 1.0175 respectively) were 100%. Ophthalmic artery index RI and PI was significantly increased in patients with diabetic retinopathy and the sensitivity and specificity for detection retinopathy was 100%. Color Doppler ultrasound method is more efficient for screening diabetic patients with retinopathy.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common Inflammatory demyelinating disease in central nervous system. So many genetically and environmental factors are involved in forming it. This study has been done in purpose of checking Effective risk factors in Development of multiple sclerosis in Kermanshah. Current study is an analytical from kind of Case-control study. For doing this, 80 patients with MS and 80 patients without it which were assimilated for age and gender with case group, have been studied. Data gathering tools was self-made questionnaire including demographic features questionnaire and disease risk factors that its validity had been confirmed by Content validity and reliability of Cronbach's alpha test. Obtained data has been analyzed by SPSS 18 and through Descriptive and inferential statistics. History of accident and trauma to the head and back (p=0.077), history of poultry contact (p=0.07), lack of sunbathing (p=0.151), The menarche age (p=0.01) and having multiple sclerosis in other family members (p=0.000) can increase risk of M.S. Based on findings, History of accident and trauma to the head and back, history of poultry contact, lack of sunbathing, the menarche age, having multiple sclerosis in other family members and being third child are considered as effective risk factors of disease.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress coping skills training on family functioning in families with mental patients referred to Razi Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2015-2016. In this experimental study, 82 members of the families with psychiatric patients who had been hospitalized for the first time for treatment were randomly selected. To collect data, the standard Family Assessment Device (FAD) was used before and after intervention. The samples were randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. The first test was held for both groups. In the intervention group four training sessions were held, as well as educational pamphlet was provided. The second test was held 14 days after the implementation of the training for the intervention group, but it was held for the control group 14 days after implementation of the first test. Finally, the test results were compared before and after training, as well as between the two groups. The results showed that family functioning in the intervention group compared to the control group after training is statistically significant (p= 0.001) also the average of general family function and other dimensions has decreased after the intervention except for behavioral control (p =0.001). According to findings of this study stress coping training is considerably effective on family functioning in families with mental patients; therefore the implementation of this method to improve family functioning is recommended.
The objective of this study was evaluating the factors related to attitudes of primary school teachers in first and second grade of public and private schools on abuse of students in City of Dorud in year 1394. The studied population was comprised of 350 teachers in elementary schools for girls and boys in first and second grades. The research samples were selected randomly and includes 160 teachers with minimum 1-year job experience. For data collection, a questionnaire was used that includes three sections of demographic questions, 20 questions on attitude, and 20 questions regarding factors related to attitudes on abuse. The collected data was analyzed using Pearson correlation, independent t-test, and analysis of variance. Our results showed that various factors such as unfavorable economic conditions, lack of school amenities, dissatisfaction with the administrative processes, and low income are among the most significant factors affecting the teachers’ attitude on abuse of students.